This is an account of Jihad against Jainism: Jain mandir destruction, conversion, lovejihad, terrorism and killing of Jain leaders and GoRakshaks, across centuries, spanning 1300+ years in India and lands lost to India, namely Afghanistan, Pakistan and Bangladesh.

Jainism Versus Islam

In the Islamic mission to wipe out everything unIslamic from the face of the earth, to wipeout moorti-pooja / worship of anyone other than Allah or reverence to anyone other than Mohammed, does not spare Jainism. So there has been plenty of destruction of Jain structures, just like destruction of Vaidika-Astika structures. There has been plenty of slaughter of Jains by Islamic armies, plenty of conversion and enslavement of Jains in proportion to their population in the area attacked, the severity of  the attack, the degree of repelling capacities of the non-Islamic king ruling there and the proportion of the entire non-Islamic population residing there. Even today, Jain girls aren’t spared from Love Jihad. This is a point the most sectarian Jain cannot disagree with.

Methodology of glancing through some social media inputs:

It is worth reading some websites, which can fulfill the need for beginning of collection for authentic information on Jain suffering under Islam. Most searches lead one through search engines like Google, then to Wikipedia and then Quora. Only further does one get information on Jain sites in particular. Even there, one has to sift through websites listed which are just listed by preference of hits, not by authenticity.

Yet, while answers on Quora are not always authentic, as also citation of the source of information as Wikipedia, the degree of believability of the authenticity of Wikipedia and Quora has increased manifold in the past 7-8 years. Besides that, there can be tests for veracity.

As a test, let us check this e-discussion is this answer by one Dushyant Chauhan, on Quora. The answer is authentic because the answer primarily quotes Sita Ram Goel who was the first Hindu scholar to fearlessly present an exhaustive list of broken Hindu temples and appropriated Hindu temple sites (both including Jain temples and temple sites) in his magnum opus “Hindu temples: What happened to them- Volumes I and II” which still goes unanswered by noisy leftists. After that the author Dushyant Chauhan expands the narrative by adding in interesting personal information (including photographs) collected by personally visiting the sites. https://www.quora.com/Which-famous-Hindu-temples-did-the-Muslim-conquerors-rulers-of-India-destroy

After that, we get Jain websites or blogs, some of which are utterly non-scholarly, sectarian and often apologetic about Islam. Here, we use their information pointers – here, for Jain temples destroyed or Jains attacked or Jain people /temples converted – and then collect further information on the leads, to hopefully get scholarly collateral sources with higher expectations of authenticity. Even here, one gets a tendency to sound apologetic about Islam, and pitiable attempts that try to override the Hindu roots of anything Indic and show some superficial similarities between Dharmik Jainism and Abrahamic Islam to show some fake universal similarity of faiths. Eventually we have the full-blooded Hindu website that makes a reference to Islamic iconoclasm. I general and to Jain Mandir victims as a component of that iconoclasm.



When Aurangzeb was still a prince under Shah Jahan who was the then Mughal ruler, Aurangzeb was deployed as the governor of Gujarat. What Aurangzeb was going to do later after seizing the Mughal emperor seat, he showed in his brief governorship in Gujarat when still a prince. He attacked many temples in Gujarat, which included a magnificent Chintamani Parshwanath Mandir, destroyed itt and defended it. Later, he was to destroy the twice-rebuilt Somanath Mandir of the Vaidik-Aastiks… and many Mandirs all over India including the Kashi Vishweshwar.

Let us see what scholar, political commentator and blogger-writer Japan Pathak writes about the destruction of the Karnavati-area Chintamani  Parshwanath Mandir  by Aurangzeb (blog: Somnath Series by Japan K Pathak dated August 13, 2017):

According to the French traveler Jean de Thévenot (1666) and Mirat-i-Ahmadi, Aurangzeb (in 1645) caused a slaughter of cow in Chintamani Parshwanath Jain temple in Ahmedabad and demolished it. The temple was located close to Saraspur area of city. It was built in 1625 by a prominent Jain businessman Shantidas Jhaveri. Aurangzeb replaced this temple with a new mosque which was named  as  ‘Quwwat-ul-Islam’ which means ‘might of Islam’ or ‘glory of Islam’.

It is interesting to note here that around 450 years ago in 1193 AD, Turkish invader Qutabuddin Aibak had demolished 27 Hindu and Jain temples and built the first mosque of Delhi which was also named as ‘Quwwat-ul-Islam’.  This mosque exists even today at Qutub Minar fame Qutb complex in Delhi(Qutub minar – the tourist attraction was by-the-way built as a tower of victory, celebrating the Muslim conquest of India). Aurangzeb had been a student of history. Did Qutb-ud-din Aibak’s  450-year old action in Delhi inspire Aurangzeb to do the same in Ahmedabad?  After all in both cases, Jain temples were sacrificed, mosques were built as replacement using ruins of Jain temples and same name was given to both new mosques!

In any case, Chintamani Parshwanath was not the only temple that was demolished by Aurangzeb in Gujarat in those years.  In 1665 as emperor of Mughal Sultanate in Delhi, Aurangzeb in his farman mentioned, ‘In Ahmadabad and other parganas of Gujarat in the days before my accession(as a ruler of Mughal sultanate in Delhi) (many) temples were destroyed by my order…’



Vallabhi was a beautiful university in Gujarat’s Bhavnagar. Valllabhi was ruled by the Maitrakas. Vallabhi had Vaidik, Buddhist and Jain presence, and had a university that taught the Astik Darshans, Buddhism, general subjects and had foreign students. Yet, the earliest presence and the predominant population of  the residents of Vallabhi were Jains.

Vallabhi was attacked and destroyed by Arabs in 782 CE during the period when Mohammed bin Qasim had subdued Sindh.

We have many quotes on this destruction… “A Jain scroll which Colonel James Tod obtained from a Jain guru in Sanderao gives the earliest description of founding of the town. The scroll mentions that on the sack of Vallabhi city in Gujarat, thirty thousand Jain families abandoned Valabhi and led by their priests found a retreat for themselves in Marwar. On the ruins of Vallabhi was founded Anhil-Patan..” https://www.jatland.com/home/Vallabhipur#Sack_of_Vallabhi Well, Anhil Pattan was a also the target of Islamic invasions.

Numerous Jain websites quote the destruction of temples in Shatrunjay. But some pro-Buddhist scholars treat Vallabhi’s origin as not Jain but instead Buddhist, its heritage Buddhist and its fate of becoming first prone and then victim to armies of Islamic invaders also Buddhist: similar to the fate and ‘pattern’ of Nalanda and other Buddhist universities being  attacked and razed to the ground. “As the founders came from Nalanda, Vallabhi followed the Nalanda pattern in most of its activities. It flourished from 475 to 1200 A.C. It met the same fate as other Universities at the hands of the Muslim invaders.https://www.budsas.org/ebud/ebdha240.htm The blog writer would like to state that though the university is claimed to have been established not by Jains but by Buddhists (from Nalanda), and though plenty of Astik Darshans were taught there undermining  the claim of it being a ‘Buddhist’ university, let us assume the Buddhist claim to the university; even then, the pattern claimed of ‘a Buddhist University being destroyed by Islamic armies’ cannot be called a Nalanda pattern because the destruction of Vallabhi happened in the 8th century CE and the  destruction of Nalanda under Bakhtiyar Khilji happened circa 1200 CE, which is anachronistic. Instead, even if we Vallabhi a Buddhist centre, the pattern may be instead called the Vallabhi pattern, though a destruction of Buddhist universities is  indeed the pattern, Takshashila to Nallanda and Vikramshila is – from a  Hindu point of view – still lamentable  indeed.




A predominantly Shwetambar teertha, with temples to all teerthankaars except to Neminath the 22nd, and with one Digambar teertha, and with some hundreds of large and small Jain Mandirs, along with  Hinglaj Mata as the governing mother god deity, Shatrunjay in Palitana became a victim of Islamic iconoclasm armies.

It was destroyed in VS 1369 by Allauddin Khilji. https://www.cs.colostate.edu/~malaiya/shatru.html

A Sufi claimed to have ‘stopped the Islamic armies with magical powers’ (sic) and got himself a seat for a dargah, ushering in syncretism throught-the-back-door.



Shankeshwar is next only to those on Mount Shatrunjay teerth in Palitana in terms of importance to Shwetambar Jains. It has a legend: “…the soldiers of the army of Lord Krishna to be cured during the war between Shri Krishna and Jarasandh by the effect of the holy water used for the bath of the moolnayak idol of this temple…” Muslim invader Allauddin Khilji and his soldiers have destroyed this teerth place during 14th century. http://www.jainjagat.com/viewtemple.php/Alpha/S/64



In southern India, Islamic officials occasionally banned Jains from acts of idol-veneration. For example, they blocked the anointing of the large statue of Bāhubali at Shravana Belagola in Karnataka in the 17th century CE. This period coincides with the advent of Shivaji Maharaj.


Fatehpur Sikri is now a UNESCO heritage city. Fatehpur Sikri was where Muslim Mughal Emperor Akbar had supposedly FOUNDED his own splendid capital city from nothing, in the 16th Century CE (http://rdspweb.com/fatehpur-sikri-dargah-history/). This was the official version of history that was being taught in India, in line with the Marxist-Nehruvian-Secularist agenda of glorifying the history of the Mughals and ignoring the history of Dharma.

But recent excavations revealed Jain motifs and a whole sprawling Jain city underneath. The original name of the city was Vijay Pur.

The palace of Akbar is less than half a kilometer from where it all started getting uncovered (1999-2000 CE) with the excavation of a Jain-styled 6-feet tall Saraswati in a Tribhanga posture (but slightly broken) moorti from a raised mound (site called Bir Chabeli ka Tila).

Image courtesy: http://media2.intoday.in/indiatoday/images/stories//2000February/fatehpur-sikri6_071812021145.jpg

Further excavations yielded a rich crop of Jain statues, hundreds of them, including the foundation stone of a temple and a huge city underneath the surface. http://www.hindustantimes.com/books/fatehpur-sikri-was-once-a-jain-pilgrimage-centre-book/story-4DfRoVJ6tVxmWzz1RztA5I.html Quotes the same newspaper quoting a local Jain person: “The statues were a thousand years old of Bhagwan Adi Nath, Bhagwan Rishabh Nath, Bhagwan Mahavir and Jain Yakshinis.” Many of these further findings were also uncovered from their burial in a pond of red sandstone, and they ‘seemed hurriedly immersed’. Local Jains want to build a Jain museum there.

Vaidik and Jain motifs were found together, like a black marble Jain Teerthankaara, along with moortis of Parvati with sons Ganesha and Karttikeya https://janamejayan.wordpress.com/2013/02/25/below-akbars-fatehpur-sikri-lies-an-ancient-jain-city/.

A book was published (जैन धर्म का प्रमुख केंद्र था फतेह्पूर सिक्री by Bhanu Pratap Singh), giving proof of an ancient trade city of Jain and Vaidik heritage predating Akbar by  more than a millennium (Sikarwar Rajputs and Jains – dating 2nd century CE http://defenceforumindia.com/forum/threads/fatehpur-sikri-was-once-a-jain-pilgrimage-centre.48359/), and where statues found were damaged (indicating iconoclasm): http://www.hindustantimes.com/books/fatehpur-sikri-was-once-a-jain-pilgrimage-centre-book/story-4DfRoVJ6tVxmWzz1RztA5I.html

As expected, leftist historians stepped in to negate or dilute the findings that point to Islamic squatters or iconoclasm.

Harbans Mukhia:

Harbans Mukhia, from JNU, was called to see the findings of the Jain past of the Fatehpur Sikri. Mukhia did not forget to praise the beauty of  the discovered Saraswati moorti and the ‘co-operation’ given by ASI (Archaeological Survey of India) in studying the discoveries, but Harbans Mukhia also did not forget to push his own agenda of negation of Muslim atrocities on Dharmik places, while diluting the Dharmik claim on the site: he tried his best to muddle the claim using his academic clout, by saying there with many possibilities, no certainty could be affirmed to a previous destruction or at least takeover scenario… “Says historian Harbans Mukhia, who specialises on Medieval India and plans to take a trip to the site: ‘I’m not surprised by the findings. Medieval society worked in a different manner. Demolitions in that age were conducted as an act of conquest or as an act of re-building. One needs to see them in the right perspective.’” http://defenceforumindia.com/forum/threads/fatehpur-sikri-was-once-a-jain-pilgrimage-centre.48359/

Irfan Habib:

Irfan Habib, one of India’s most distinguished historians of the medieval period, thinks that it is not necessary to go this far afield. The military occupation of the area around Fatehpur Sikri was accomplished between 1192 and 1206 by Mohammad Ghauri and his generals, he asserts. So if the object is to ascribe responsibility for the possible destruction of a temple in the region, it may not be necessary to go much further than this period.” Habib chooses to ‘question history writing which looks at each episode of temple destruction as a decisive and formative influence on the course of history’. http://defenceforumindia.com/forum/threads/fatehpur-sikri-was-once-a-jain-pilgrimage-centre.48359/

Leftist pressure stopped further excavation. Quotes the author of the book on Jain copyrights to the Fatehpur Sikri’s past, Bhanu Pratap Singh: “The ASI, for reasons known only to itself, abruptly stopped excavations at Fatehpur Sikri.”  http://zeenews.india.com/news/uttar-pradesh/fatehpur-sikri-was-once-a-jain-pilgrimage-centre-book_831821.html.

Already,  leftist views against the Jain copyright of the discovery appear in social media, following the same old strategy: explain away by diluting the claim (a Khalistani website allowing a leftist preacher, some Amit Sengupta http://www.sikhmatrimonials.com/Sikhnet/discussion.nsf/78f5a2ff8906d1788725657c00732d6c/1536296F2C1840658725691E00543B07!OpenDocument)

What is funny is that when the location of such a magnificent moorti-concealing mound is just 200 metres from the Akbar site, how could the distance be considered irrelevant particularly in the wake of buried moortis, damaged moortis and a whole city being found with exact dates on pottery inscriptions?

So, upright scholars reacted to the Leftist politics. Quote: “Mukhia’s plea for an attentive reading that would be alive to the complexities of sectarian strife in the medieval period was not received well in certain quarters. Among the first to react was S.P. Gupta, a former Director of the Allahabad Museum who distinguished himself during the Ayodhya controversy in the late 1980s and early 1990s by his assiduous and often clumsy efforts to establish the ‘Hindu’ provenance of the site of the Babri Masjid. In a paper circulated shortly after Mukhia’s intervention in the debate, Gupta pointed out that ‘there is ample proof of the destruction of the Jain temple’ and ‘no evidence of Hindu vandalism at the site’. What, then, he asked, is the other language of this destruction if not ‘demolishing temples’ by Muslims?

For his part, Sharma reacted with vehemence to Mukhia’s propositions. Ignoring all the pleas of tentativeness that had been advanced, Sharma accused Mukhia of offering a ‘definitive view’ and a ‘final judgment’ on the basis of incomplete knowledge. And plunging ahead recklessly from this gross misreading, Sharma went on to ascribe motives of a particularly sectarian kind: ‘It is widely known that some historians of Delhi, who were hitherto monopolising the state patronage (sic), have been reduced to their actual size. Naturally, they are aggrieved and they are making the best of every trifle to embarrass the government on charges of saffronisation of institutions… They feel outraged that their intellectual hegemony – carefully fabricated and scaffolded over the years – has been demolished.’

Reported from the leftist media outlet: http://www.frontline.in/static/html/fl1715/17150650.htm

Secularist newspaper (HT – Hindustan Times) which tiptoes about the Jain claim of copyrights over the city, does report Jain warming up to their past. It states: The Jain community in Agra is now planning to develop a museum in Fatehpur Sikri to tell the world “the real history of the area”, according to philanthropist Ashok Jain, a chartered accountant. http://www.hindustantimes.com/books/fatehpur-sikri-was-once-a-jain-pilgrimage-centre-book/story-4DfRoVJ6tVxmWzz1RztA5I.html


There are also more claims today in India, to unearth any Hindu (Vaidik, Jaina) past of more monuments with an Islamic stamp, like the Qutub Minar of Delhi, currently attributed to Qutubuddin Aibak, the slave dynasty’s governor of Mohammed Ghauri who killed the last Hindu ruler of Delhi – Pruthviraj Chauhan (we  of course had Hemchandra later, but we are talking of the Qutub Minar). The Qutub Minar had 27 mandirs, each dedicated to a nakshatra or  constellation, with a mix of both Vaidik and Jain motifs.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oEEa-nRvoDM<iframe width=”854″ height=”480″ src=”https://www.youtube.com/embed/oEEa-nRvoDM” frameborder=”0″ gesture=”media” allow=”encrypted-media” allowfullscreen></iframe>

The carvings on the columns in the destroyed temples prove the site being a Jain-Vaidik centre. How could the invader have built such a massive tower in a short while, when he used such rubble from broken Mandirs for other surrounding structures?

Image courtesy: FLICKR Mukul Banerjee https://www.flickr.com/photos/mukulb/3990893353/in/photostream/

Even in the Qutub Minar case, negationism to whitewash Islam assumes absurd and ridiculous proportions: an article states that Hindu carved stones being used for an Islamic structure cannot be proof of the place having been a Hindu monument at all at the start, because Hindu laborers would never build a monument with rubble from a temple! (http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/qutab-minar-was-not-originally-a-hindu-monument-say-experts/1/436716.html) As if laborers would never build monuments when forced to, under duress, though reluctantly! If Hindu temple demolition cannot produce such Hindu carved stones to build a mosque, what else does? And if Muslim zeal cannot use such carved stones as proof of Islamic triumph over Hinduism, what else would?


That an entire community gets converted is seen in history across the world.  We shall quote a website:

The Navayath community of coastal Karnataka are believed to be the descendents of Arab men and Jain women. Visiting Arab traders would marry the daughters of local Jain traders. Many of the Arabs would then continue on with their maritime trade travels living the women and children behind. As a result, the children grew up under a strong Jain influence of the mother, and the community today has retained many Jain customs like eating before sunset, dominance of vegetarian food and the dress and jewellery of the women of this community are similar to the Hindu-Jain traditions. This community has a unique language called Navayathi which is basically Konkani with a preponderance of Sanskrit, Persian, Arabic, and Marathi words and the script used is Persian. The Navayaths claim that their Arab ancestors were followers of Shaafi school and traders like the Jains, and were peace loving, diplomatic and friendly. According to some scholars the abundance of Persian words in Navayathi indicates that some of their ancestors may be from Iran while some historians trace their origin to South Yemen.http://twocircles.net/2008mar05/derasar_and_dargah_coexist_gandhis_gujarat.html

The ‘strong  dominance of vegetarian food’, ‘eating before sunset’, etc. are the vestiges of their Jain past; a movement of Tablighisation can remove those traces. Basically, when a vegetarian Jain converts to Islam, and starts slitting goat throats on Bakri Eid, what point is there being romantic about a Jain past?What is lost can only be gained back by reconversion or ghar wapasi.


Tipu Sultan had attacked Kannada, Malayali, Thulu and Kodagu (Coorgi) people, Vaidiks, Jains and Roman Catholics too.

Visnugudi Basadi Jain temple reliefs ruined and abandoned after a Tipu Sultan attack




  1. Jains of Bengal: destruction by Khilji:

The region of KarnaSuvarna (Islamised to Murshidabad) in Gangetic West Bengal had Jains. The district Burdwan in West Bengal is named after Vardhaman Mahaveer.  This region was attacked by Bakhtiyar Khilji; Khilji could destroy Buddhist Nalanda, defeat but not convert the subjects of the Vaidik King Ballal Sen of Bengal, entered Eastern Bengal but could not have any strong victory over the Ahoms (Assam) or over Odisha. In West Bengal, the region in and around Purulia has a lot of Jain temple ruins.

Pakbira, Banda and Deulghata are such places where the Jain moortis of Rishabhdeva are now worshipped by non-Jain locals as Bhairava. The website from whom these pictures are borrowed is by Bengali bloggers who may be  suspected to have been influenced by the politically fashionable narrative, of blaming Hinduism: while the website says Hindus started calling the Jain moorti a moorti of Bhairava, changed a Jain place for ‘Hindu’ worship, the same ‘Hindus’ who are ‘non-Jain’ locals  are said  to be  worshipping the  Teerthankaar moortis ‘with devotion’. But the website does not mention Bakhtiyar Khillji.

Broken statue of Jain tirthankars Chandraprabha Padmaprabha (only lower part) and a part of Amalak: Pakbira, Bengal


Jain and Vaidik moortis are equally worshipped by non-Jain locals

Deulghata Jain ruins of a once-tall Jain mandir…

Image courtesies: http://chitrolekha.com/temples-of-deulghata-pakbira-and-banda-a-photo-journey/

Would Vaidik Dharma non-Jains (read:’Hindus!’) break and mutilate a Jain moorti they want to continue worshipping, being moortipoojaks themselves? Also, moortis of Teerthankaars are worshipped at par and along with the moortis of Vaidik-Astik devatas like Ganesha, Mahishasurmardini, Saraswati, etc. also placed there which destroys the argument that Hindus must be blamed for usurpation of Jain sites.

The fill-in-the-blanks have to be  Islamic invasions causing destruction ofg Jain and Vaidik structures both, considering that Bengal has had a really long rule by Islamic conquuest.

2. The Saraks: Odia-Bengali Jains who lost to Khilji:

The Jains who had spread in Odisha, southwestern Bengal and southeastern Jharkhand in ancient times had established their own kingdoms and trade and cultural centres. Though prosperous, their region succumbed to the raids of Bakhtiyar Khilji. After the raids of Bakhtiyar Khilji, the Saraks lost not just wealth but all contact with Jains in the rest of India; but they still remained Jain and vegetarian all throughout history engaging in agriculture and copper mining, speaking either Odia or Bengali and continuing to worship the moortis of standing teerthankaars (kaayotsarga or standing, and naked).

The Saraks remained obscured from other Jains till the advent of the Maratha kingdom. Contact with the Digambara Jains from Bundelkhand was reestablished only under Maratha rule around 1720–1785 when a gentleman from the Parwar one sub-community amongst Bundelkhand Jains, was appointed the governor of Cuttack by the Maratha Empire. (Annexation of Bengal by the British made Oswal Jains flock there for business opportunities; they are a different community called Sheherwali Jains.)

  1. Eastern Bengal’s extinct Jain heritage:

That there were Jains in Eastern Bengal is noticed in the 16th century CE, some 350+ years after Khilji, in Sonargaon and other places. http://bangladeshunlocked.blogspot.in/2011/12/buddhism-and-jainism-in-bangladesh.html

Image courtesy: https://www.facebook.com/RamchandraSuri/photos/a.300490673300182.93133.269002566448993/300490729966843/?type=3&theater


But after Partition and after the creation of Bangladesh, Jains are now a hopeless minority; they are not ethnic Bengali-speaking but are of Western Indian descent and are migrant traders.



The very name Bharat for Hindusthan comes from the king Bharat, who could be the Vaidik king – the son of Vaidik king Dushyant and Shakuntala – or the Jain king Bharat. The Jain king Bharat was earlier so our very country is named after Jain king Bharat, the eldest son of the first Jain teerthankaar Rishabh Dev. Undivided India, Akhanda Bharat or Sampporna Hindusthaan is what is today’s SAARC. Like all parts of undivided classical India or Akhanda Bharatvarsha (Akhanda Hindusthan), SAARC countries have Jain heritage as part and parcel of their pre-Islamic and pre-Buddhist heritage. Hence, West Punjab and Sindh (both Pakistan-occupied) as well as Afghanistan are part of this overall Punya Bhoomi of Jains.

Therefore Jainism was also present in breakaway Pakistan and Afghanistan, but was less incident than was Buddhism. (Jainism was also present elsewhere further west – beyond todays’ Af-Pak – quotes a Jain website. http://jainsamaj.org/rpg_site/literature2.php?id=658)

Jain temples in such places have been targeted by Muslim iconoclasts over centuries. Almost a whole millennium before the advent of Khalsa Sikhs, the entire Western and North-Western tracts of Akhanda Bharat (Sindh, Pakhtun areas and other parts of today’s Afghanistan, Kashmir, Western Punjab, Baluchistan, areas now mostly lost to Islam or under the grip of Jihad terror today) had a mix of Vaidik, Jain and Buddhist Indians (just as in case of Eastern Bengal and also, Arakan). These areas had so many Buddhists and also some Jains, the Ahimsa and pacifism followers, in comparison to the population of the resistance-capable Vaidiks, that Ahimsa flattened any resistance to invasions, particularly violent Muslim religious invasions; but further east, which is today’s Eastern Punjab, Jammu, Rajputana and Kutchh-Gujarat there were a lot of Vaidiks, who kept the Hindu flag up, and also protected Jains.

But the reality is, today, Afghanistan and Pakistan exist as Islamic entities. After suffering attacks for destruction, ban on repair, appropriation into Islamic occupation, conversion to mosques, etc. for centuries, even today in Pakistan’s Islamic Republic, the attacks on Buddhist, Jain, Vaidik-Astik, Sikh places continue. https://lahorenama.wordpress.com/tag/jain-mandar-chowk/  But there is a special addition to this: Jain-Hindu Mandirs in Pakistan have fallen into disuse when practicing Jains migrated away to safer locations like Hindu neighbourhoods in Pak cities, or to India.


Afghanistan had some Jains but they have all left after the continuous wars. Afghanistan did have Jain heritage out of its total Hindu past, and besides the more-marketed Buddhist component of Dharmik heritage. There is practically no Jain presence of Jains in Afghanistan today.

Books and articles on Afghanistan’s Dharmik past have indeed been written, but ones highlighting Jainism amongst them are not so prominently available. There is a promising article the blog writer could lead the interested reader to: ‘Evidence of Jainism in Afghanistan and Kashmir in Ancient Times’ by Dr. Pratapaditya Pal ,(Bulletin of the Asia Institute, New Series, Vol. 21 (2007), pp. 25-33, published by Bulletin of the Asia Institute); it has also been discussed with peer reviews. The blog writer does not cast aspersions about the political narrative of the research scholar mentioned, pending a scholarly read by his own self; but the reference is worth  attention at least for compilation of information, as the title does not sound apologetic about Islamic  iconoclasm, but rather outlines its purpose as informing the reader about Islamic destruction of  Jain  structures.

Thumbnails: https://www.jstor.org/stable/24049361?seq=1#page_thumbnails_tab_contents

Full link: https://www.jstor.org/stable/24049361?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Shor Bazar, Kabul, Afghanistan: Mahabeer Mandir:

Image courtesy: https://pbs.twimg.com/media/CdWOLsEUUAAXnZl.jpg

Further source: http://en.encyclopediaofjainism.com/index.php?title=Mahabeer_Temple,_Afghanistan

The image here is of a site called ‘Mahabeer’ Mandir, in Kabul; since it shows a moorti in meditation with the upper half destroyed, and does not show any vastra edge sculpted into the moorti’s legs, it may indeed be the moorti of a naked teerthankaar. Whether the clutching of the two palms is Jain or Yoga may be discussed to decide if it is a Jain moorti.

The name of the destroyed temple – Mahabeer – too may prove it difficult to decide whether the temple was originally Jain or Aastik (Vaidik), like the Mahabeer could be Bhagwan Mahaveer the last (24th) Teerthankaar of Jainism, or could be Deva Hanuman also called Mahaveer Hanuman, who often gets depicted sitting in a padmasan posture with hand held low in meditation (many such mixed Jain and Vaidik elements have been present in temple construction due to Jain-to-Vaidik intra-Dharmik osmosis).

Such name applications to different deities across India is common; even today, in Rajasthan, the  word Balaji is used for Hanuman while it stands for Venkatesha Balaji , a form of Vishnu, in peninsular India).

…Either way, it is a destruction of the heritage of Hindus.


If we search for internet stories from outside present-day India, we get information from Pakistan, of Jain places being spontaneously destroyed or converted into a mosque or simply occupied, without even changing the label, for Islamic religious purposes, by Jihadi citizens, steadily over decades after Pakistan was carved out. In the aftermath of the Babari demolition in 1992, it was done as retaliation. Ancient heritage Jain structures and Jain Mandirs have also been destroyed in Pakistan for some ‘development work’. Several older Jain temples in Pakistan lie abandoned as the community moved out to cities in Pakistan (relatively safer locations for Hindus in Pakistan compared to the countryside), or came to India to save their lives, dignity and identity of the Jain faith.


Most quotes (but not all) presented below are from the articles of Haroon Khalid. Haroon Khalid is a liberal Pakistani journalist who writes even for the Indian Leftist site Scroll.in where he tries his best to present a balanced picture of Pakistan as a not-so-communal country. https://www.dawn.com/news/1282025/


But Haroon Khalid has indeed written some books outlining the pre-Islamic Hindu past of Pakistan, with reference to Shiva Mahadeva.

Image source: https://cdn-az.allevents.in/banners/762151e3c0689b0f62d958e365ccbc43

A community of Punjabis practices Jainism – the Bhabras. These Punjabi Jains were ethnic natives who worked as traders everywhere in Punjab and had built many a magnificent temple. Most of these Bhabras have migrated to India after Partition.

1. Jainism in Multan: A Jain temple near Multan (Pakistan today), is now a Madrassah. Quote: “About 200 kilometers from Malka Hans, in the ancient city of Multan believed to have been once ruled by Hiranyakashipu, the tyrant father of Bhakta Prahlada (Bhagat Prahalada, in Punjabi), we saw a similar anomaly. Deep within the walled city, we located a Jain Temple. Even before we entered the main room of the temple we could hear a humming sound of children reciting the Quran, memorizing it. Inside the hall there were rows of mats with small tables in front of them where children had placed their copies of the Quran, rhythmically moving back and forth as they recited their lesson.https://www.huffingtonpost.com/haroon-khalid/hindu-temples-muslim-madrassas_b_9096576.html

As a side, the writer of that article, Haroon Khalid, also states: Multan is the city of Bhakta Prahlad.


2. Jainism in Lahore: Lahore city has a place called Jain Mandir, an eponymous busy bus stop. Lahore had a historic Jain Mandir said to have the footprints of Rishabha dev, the first Jain teerthankaar; the ethnic Punjabi Jains, the Bhabra, consider it their heritage. It was a temple destroyed for road widening against court orders, indicating full complicity of the Islamic administration with Jihadi intentions, notwithstanding a namesake Constitution.

Screenshots from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tz1Bgh7CMzc prove that the construction is of a heritage nature.

Quotes Haroon Khalid in the Dawn website: “Notwithstanding a court order, authorities in Pakistan’s Punjab province have demolished the remains of a centuries-old Jain temple to pave the way for a controversial metro line project in Lahore. In violation of the Lahore High Court’s order to suspend all work on the line within 200 feet of buildings of historical value, the Punjab government on Thursday demolished the remains of the already damaged temple.



Could the Jain temples in Pakistan which were destroyed be rebuilt? Can the Lahore Jain Mandir indeed be rebuilt? Quotes the article: “But there is a problem. Inside the lower room of the mandir, which still is in place, lives a ‘maulvi’ who claims he runs a religious school but sleeps there at night.”  The article claims Jainism is older than Hinduism (read: the post SSC Pouraanik Hinduism as per the nit-picking Indologists; of course, we have no issue about the ancientness of Jainism, which evolved from Indic society and culture to speak in ‘Indologist-ese’). https://www.dawn.com/news/1124419

3. Jainism in RawalPindi: There were many Bhabraa Jains in RawalPindi too, and they too had to flee to India after Partition. But the monuments and buildings of the Jain legacy still remain, and are occupied or converted to Islamic structures.



4. Jain mandirs in Narowal and Sialkot:
Unlike other places, here there were recently constructed Jain Mandirs. There were Bhabhra Jains living here, and they had a Jain Mandir that was built some time before Partition, dedicated to the 20th teerthankaar of Jainism, Shree Munisuvrat Swami. Today it is used as a house by a Muslim family; the moorti which had had Praanapratishtha done, is now not seen and the sanctum sanctorum / garbhagruha is now used as a kitchen, including for non-vegetarian food!

(Zahida Rehaman Jatt, University of Sindh, Jamshoro)

5. Jainism in Gujranwala: This image tells us about Jain Bhabra presence in Gujranwala. The plate is a mix of four scripts: English, Sanskrit-rich Hindi Devnagari, a script that is either Perisan or Urdu and a script that is a trader script called Khudabadi, otherwise used by Sindhi Hindus but used to write business books by trader communities in pre-Partition Pakistan. Also note, the merchant mentioned is a Bhabra with a middle name which is Nanak Das – a Sikh-name-sounding father – for a Jain family! (Hindus Khatris in Punjab are a mix of Arya Samaji, Jain, Vaidik and Sikh faiths when they intermarry as a jaati, a harmony destroyed by Khalistanwadi forces.)

Image courtesy: https://www.facebook.com/RamchandraSuri/photos/pb.269002566448993.-2207520000.1514116060./1293068814042358/?type=3&theater

6. Jainism in Sindh: Sindh being next to Gujarat and Rajasthan, had a lot of Jain Mandirs, constructed over centuries. UNESCO treats Nagarparkar in Sindh as a heritage place. http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/6111/

Nagarparkar (district Tharparkar, Sindh, now in Pakistan), near the border with India, has numerous magnificent Jain Mandirs. Tharparkar has a large Hindu population and many magnificent Jain Mandirs.

Image courtesy: https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-a013zPV3yww/T7_59hOfGDI/AAAAAAAADEk/utPuUl2F94Q/s200/An+old+Jain+temple+in+Pakistan’s+Tharpakar.jpg

Gori (Godi) jo mandar: The 16th century Jain temple dedicated to the 23rd Teerthankaar Paarshwanath, in Nagarparkar. The destroyed portions never seem to have been repaired.


This is another video of another Jain Mandir in Nagarparkar. Image source is a screenshot

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=erp_CFXg1mI https://youtu.be/erp_CFXg1mI<iframe width=”854″ height=”480″ src=”https://www.youtube.com/embed/erp_CFXg1mI” frameborder=”0″ gesture=”media” allow=”encrypted-media” allowfullscreen></iframe>

This youtube video report describes how the Jains left the place where they built their Mandir 500 years ago Mandir after the seafront receded (but there are still Muslim families living there, a whole village exists and there is a Brahmin-sounding Hindu name of the person interviewed, suggesting that the reason of sea flows receding have been used as cover-up for Islamic attacks, as the channel is probably Pakistan’s State television channel.

Bhodesar is another beautiful Sindhi Jain place.

Quotes the twitter handle of True Indology: “Hindu-Jain temple at Bhodesar, Sindh (Pakistan). Burnt destroyed and part of the complex converted to mosque.https://twitter.com/TrueIndology/status/731188770247081984


Amarkot or Umerkot / Umarkot has a significant Jain presence and the rulers are Rajputs; the princely state still has Rajput kings anointed.

Sodha Rajpur Ruler of Amarkot (Umerkot) rana Chander Singh =standing, with Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. Rana Chander Singh passed away on the 1st of August 2009. His ancestors had given refuge to Humayun during the birth of Akbar. He was succeeded by his son, Rana Hamir Singh, who has held parliamentary positions in Pakistan, in 2010, and the function was also attended by Sindhi Muslims!

Image courtesies:

Left: http://www.thehindu.com/migration_catalog/article16398719.ece/alternates/FREE_460/2009080655180501 and, Right: http://www.thehindu.com/migration_catalog/article15887378.ece/alternates/FREE_960/2010053059260501

With such a strong Hindu majority, the only reason the area  went into Pakistan was because Sindh was not partitioned into a Muslim-majority  northwestern Sindh which would have to be lost to Pakistan leaving behind a Hindu-majority Southern and southeastern Sindh to be retained by India; Sindh went into Pakistan as one bloc, unlike  Hindu-majority Western Bengal remaining with India and Muslim-majority Eastern Bengal being lost to Pakistan and later, to secede as Bangladesh.Sindhi Hindus identtified more with being Sindhi than being Hindu.

Here is a discussion on the same. http://danasurdanu.blogspot.in/2014/07/hindu-majority-areas-gifted-to-pakistan.html

Sindh in 1940 and then after Partition

Left – https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-D9wdrxHbHRc/Vf6lg0os6aI/AAAAAAAAJSc/9qTPhvJxeAY/s640/sindh%2B-%2BCopy%2B-%2BCopy%2B%25282%2529.png

Right – https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-yYYdRWmPrLU/T7_5hSTRMbI/AAAAAAAADEc/X2EUOiz57vE/s1600/The%2BHindu%2Bpopulation%2Bin%2BPakistan%2Bis%2Bmainly%2Bconcentrated%2Bin%2BSindh%2Band%2BTharpakar%2Bdistrict.JPG

Eastern Sindh had a Hindu majority even after Partition which started changing after the  hostilities against the Hindus worsened after 1971, when the rich Thakurs left, leaving the poor lower classes of Hindus behind: Bhils, Meghwars and Kolhis.


If Nagarparkar is so close to the border, if only the Indian area would have covered the Jain temple site, the temples would have been excellently maintained. The condition of the Jain Mandirs in Barmer, the southwestern-most district of Rajasthan and in Kutchh district of Gujarat is excellent; Barmer, Kutchh from India and the Tharparker district of Sindh province of Pakistan share a tripoint-border.

Image source: Google maps: Umarkot to Nagarparkar:


Did the Hindu rajp[ut king of Nagarparkar, a Hindu-majority princely state with aHindu king, adjoining a Hindu-majority region sure to go into India, not exert himself? Did he not receive assistance from the Indian side? Or was the Indian side overwhelmed?




Jains have been one of the target communities of Hindus during the Mumbai train blasts where trains having more members of the Gujarati and Marwadi classes of traders would be travelling. Jains are Kafirs, and are killed by  Muslims in terror attacks, along with other Hindus. The artificial inorganic distinction made by Jain separatists that they “aren’t Hindus” does not hold good, when Jains get killed along with others by Muslims.

As an example, during the Dhaka attack of 1st July 2016, one Tarishi Jain was in the restaurant; she was hiding in a toilet and tried to contact her father. When the terrorists got to her, she couldn’t recite any verse from the Quran and was identified as a kafir, and killed. Her own brother  said, she was killed for being a Hindu.

At Tarishi’s funeral, a photograph tells the story


“Terrorists killed her for being a Hindu,” says kin of Tarishi Jain, 19 year old Murdered in Dhaka Attack


This affirms that come calamity, Jains identify themselves as Hindus. But unlike other non-Vaidik and non-orthodox Indic communities (Buddhists, Sikhs, etc.), Jains have admitted to being Jain more robustly even without being killed in terror attacks.


Jains have converted to Islam under duress, as have all sections of Hindus, and these converts formed the ancestors of today’s Indian(and Pak-Af-Bangla) Musims.
An individual case happens occasionally. One such notable case is a Muzaffarnagar VHP leader, one Sushil Kumar Jain, who became Abdul Samad. http://zeenews.india.com/news/india/shiv-sena-leader-sushil-kumar-jain-embraces-islam-is-now-mohammad-abdul-samad_1878086.html


Websites quote Jain girls  as being priced  at 3 lakh rupees, to be awarded as a  cash price to a Muslim boy who lures them into marriage by conversion. Obviously, since the subject is subjudice, the images quoted are from Hindu websites.


The image is of a whatsup message circulated by the ‘Students of Muslim Youth Forum’ in Gujarat.



Instances of Jain girls converting to Islam keep occurring, and the Jain community knows about it. It reacts but the incidents continue.

As an example, here is a case from Karad, district Satara, Western Maharashtra, quoted from a  Hindu website:

A girl from Jain community staying at Shivaji Housing Society in Karad was drawn in the love-net of a fanatic and was converted. He also married her. Her family members tried to make her understand but she was in no mood to listen. The march was taken out in the background of the said incident.

Jain Munis have realized that conversion of Hindu girls to islam by the lure of love does not escape jain girls, and they show alignment with the Vaidik majority to protect their numbers. An Indian Muslim daily ‘Siasat’ reports Jain Muni Tarun Sagar as supporting family planning, disenfranchisement of those who have more than two children and measures to curb love jihad.



लव जिहाद एक अंतरराष्ट्रीय साजिश, नहीं रोका तो बन जाएगा एक और पाकिस्तान: जैन मुनि


Numerous Jains have been participants in protection of cows, prevention of opening of more slaughterhouses and saving cows in distress, along with upkeep of rescued animals. The country is studded with Jain GoShalas. Obviously, Jain Gau activists are also at the receiving end of Islamic goons, whether it is during a rescue operation or otherwise by targeting. This must be included as part of the Hindu narrative of Hindu GoSuraksha people getting killed or at least badly injured by Islamic goons when they try to stop the passage of trucks  of cattle going for slaughter.

As an illustration, we have the case of Lalit Jain a cow protection activist who was working against cow slaughter in Bhiwandi, Thane district, Maharashtra. He was killed in 2002. His murder rocked the Maharashtra State assembly and municipal councils.

Saquib Nachan was implicated, also arrested in 2002 for the murder of VHP leader Lalit Jain in Bhiwandi.  He was acquitted in the case in 2006 for want of evidence, but before that he was implicated in the Mumbai Mulund train blasts. (Saquib Nachan was the same person who is implicated in attemptingto murder another cow protectionist Manoj Raicha in 2012!)


Image courtesy: http://www.shreegopalgaushala.com/about-us/

To know more about Lalit Jain ji, read the following more  websites:





Source of more information on Lalit Jain ji:

An open letter to Federation of Indian Animal Protection Organisations (FIAPO)







https://hindunet.org/hindu_history/modern/temple_aurangzeb.html Rajiv Varma


Jains also have worries that their members get converted to Christianity. Such cases are aggressively used by missionary apparatus to attract more converts from the target faith, in this case Jain society, into Christianity. One such case is of one Sungeeta Jain, whose entire family converted to Christianity.


Jain society too has shown a start in discussing conversion, but for that, they have to align with Vaidik society (the ‘Hindus’). Jain opposition to conversion is still rhetorical but needs to be chiseled on the lines of shaastraartha.






Will Jains not then participate in the war for reuniting lost parts to Bharat, to reclaim Akhanda Bharat, and which is also the project to complete control over Jain Punya Bhoomi?


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