Forgotten Bos indicus from Baluchistan and Iran

Baluchistan, Eastern Iran, Pakhtunistan and Pak-occupied Jammu-Kashmir:

ViSmrut GoVansh, ViSmrut Nadiyaan, ViSmrut Pradesh:

The forgotten GouMaata breeds, rivers and territories of Undivided India’s West

The words ‘INDICUS’ (in Bos indicus) and ‘INDIA’ respectively refer to Indian Zebu cattle and to historic undivided Hindu India (Akhand Bharatvarsha). India – to upright Hindus – includes not just what is India as of post-1947, but also what is Afghanistan, Baluchistan and Pakistan, regions pending fulfilment of the Akhanda Bharat pledge: of re-conquest by India of whatever all was lost after separatisms, Islamic conversions and partitions gradually over the last 1300 years.

The Desi (Zebu) Cow with the hump as a distinct species of cattle – Bos indicus or the Indian  cattle – is endemic to the whole of Undivided India, and hence is also native to what is Afghanistan and Pakistan. These cattle belong to the region which is war-torn, and which figures in international geo-strategics: Baluchistan, Afghanistan, Jammu-Kashmir, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Iran. It is land which belonged to Hindu India of actual historic consideration but ends up forgotten as only Sindh, Punjab or Eastern Bengal get mentioned in Jana Gana Mana.

The breeds described here are the ones not known to most Indian cow enthusiasts and to the GauSamVardhaks; but these are very much Zebu cattle as they all have massive humps and even prominent dewlaps typical of Desi cattle we see all over India. The Bos indicus breeds of Punjab and Sindh like the Red Sindhi, White Sindhi / Tharparkar / Thari and Sahiwal, whose native tracts are found in post-1947 India too, have magnificent humps too, are not emphasised here because they are also present in India, they are well-known, are being conserved well and are the best amongst the North Indian milch cattle. Even Zebu cattle of other SAARC regions aren’t described here, they shall be another blog. Instead, only those breeds whose tracts are not officially from post-1947 India – like the areas of Baluchistan, Pakhtunistan/Afghanistan and Iran – are included here, along with cattle from the state of Jammu-Kashmir, including Pak-occupied Jammu-Kashmir. Sub-regions of this chosen western belt, with the Desi cows therein, are covered in a series of blogs, to avoid lengthening one single blog.

But while we discuss Zebu cattle breeds from these parts (what is now called Af-Pak), small aspects of the concomitant yet forgotten histories of the lands and tracts of these cattle breeds  and the eponymous rivers that flow there or places that exist within these tracts also need to be discussed. This blog is to generate awareness on these lesser-known aspects of extreme Western, Northwestern and Northern Parts of Akhand Bharatvarsha.

Yet a change is apparent –Indians have started taking cognizance of freedom demands of Pakistan-occupied Baluchistan which is but just one of three habitats of the Baloch people. But all three parts of Baluchistan – those within Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan – have the Bos indicus

In subsequent blogs, we shall dwell more on how these cattle could offer vital rejoinders to the Aryan Migration Theory. Western and Northwestern India first faced land invasions and it is through these parts from where, the proponents of the Aryan Invasion Theory so state, the ‘Aryan invaders’ themselves invaded. Well, the Aryan ‘invaders’ or ‘migrants’ – if indeed they existed and if indeed they were European or Central Asian – should then have brought in cattle native to  the Steppes – the Bos taurus – who were the taurine (non-zebu) hump-less cattle breeds with them. But there is no genetic imprint of humplessness onto the cattle breeds of western India, at all. As human genetics is employed to settle the Aryan Invasion Debate, cattle genetics should not be forgotten.

Gaushalas may be  existing in Pakistan even today, but they are under threat from either being encroached on or closed under Islamic pressure. A 2008 news item talks about how a Pakistani Punjabi Hindu temple’s Gaushala ground of 3 acres was being encroached upon.

The cattle breeds here are also getting endangered for many reasons…

  • Crossbreeding, the number one culprit
  • Desertification of the environment causing shortage of fodder and people leaving villages;
  • Islamic slaughter for beef for Qurbani or otherwise;
  • A war-oriented economy that levels everything;
  • For all the reasons India’s desi cattle have been getting sidelined (neglect, lack of any conservation policy for years, and also much more…)

Let us then see the areas one by one, to identify their cattle:




It is said, domestication of cattle – as a milestone of civilisation – started here.

Baluchistan is indeed a very ancient region. Balochistan, with the Hinglaj Mata Mandir, as a province, is trifurcated into three: the northern region within Southern Afghanistan, the Western region which is Seistan / Makran (the “Iran-occupied” Baluchistan) and the more noticed Eastern Balochistan (Pakistan-occupied).

TRIFURCATED BALUCHISTAN: 1. South east of Iran (West Baluchistan), 2. Southwest of Pakistan (East Baluchistan) and 3. South of Afghanistan (Northern Baluchistan)

Image courtesy: This Wikipedia does not show Pak-occupied portions of Jammu-Kashmir as part of Pakistan (due to instructions from the Modi government to Google?) and is hence chosen to show trifurcated Baloch areas. Many other good maps on Baluch triufurcation still show Pok as part of Pakistan even while castigating Pakistan and praising India in their content.

Iran was part of the greater Aryan map, and started emphatically calling itself separate from Bharat only after Zoroastrianism. Parts of Eastern Iran even besides the Baloch areas too have the humped Bos indicus Zebu cattle of the very same breeds mentioned in this blog. But cattle of Western Iran may not show any hump at all, and appear to be more of the Bos taurus type; they aren’t listed here. We shall deal with Iran in a separate blog regarding the challenge to the Aryan Migration Theory.

Baloch and Eastern Iranian cattle show an extremely prominent hump and the Baloch match it straight to the Mehergarh / Mehrgarh culture of the Sindhu-Saraswati civilisation map.

Image courtesies:

This Baloch website tells us how important it is to not slaughter or illegally export indigenous breeds of livestock and to preserve them.

Watch this image of a tweet, by Baloch freedom fighter Meer Baloch, about Baloch suffering; the tweet shows a humped indigenous bull in the picture.

Humped bull in Pakistan-occupied Baluchistan

The important Zebu breeds noted in Eastern Iran and Baluchistan which we shall study here are the Bhagnari (or, Bhagnadi), Sistani (or, Seistani, Chakhansurri, Shakhansurri) and Dashtiari along with a quick concomitant assessment of socio-economic and religious conditions prevalent in the tracts of these three breeds. As the borders separating Iran-occupied Baluchistan, Pak-occupied Baluchistan and the Afghan Baluchistan parts are entirely human-made, the Sistani, Dashtiari, Bhagnari are all found in Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iran. These breeds have a close resemblance with the Red Sindhi breed of Sindh.

(i) Bhagnadi/Bhagnari, (ii) Sistani / Seistani / Shakhansurri / Chakhansurri and (iii) Dahstiari


Mehrgarh civilisation and Bhagnari cattle: Bhag and Nar are twin villages in the Bhag Tehsil (taluka / mandal) of the Lehri district of Pakistan-occupied Baluchistan, and this district is derived from the Sibi and Bolan or Kachhi districts, of which Kachhi district has the extremely ancient Mehrgarh civilisation. From the two names Bhag and Nar is derived the name of the breed of cattle. As Baloch Hindus get absorbed into Sindhi Hindus, Bhagnari Hindus who arrived into India after Partition still keep their identity together as a conclave, like their conclave in Shivaji Park, Mumbai by the name Shree Bhagnari Panchayat.

Left: The site of Mehrgarh:–indus-valley-civilization-a-thousand-years.jpg

Right: A bull figurine from Mehrgarh excavations, similar to the Bhagnari and Kankrej breeds of bulls.

About the Mehrgarh civilisation, writes a Pakistani Muslim blogger Salman Rashid:

“…It was also learned from these ruins that the use of domesticated plants and animals was a local development as well. Until Mehrgarh, it was believed that domestication of cereals and animals having originated in the Near East gradually travelled across the Iranian plateau to the Sindhu Valley. The discovery of Mehrgarh changed that perspective once and for all. Here they found ample evidence of barley and wheat, sheep and goats being used as food. The transition from hunter to husbandman is clearly shown in the cultural sequence at Mehrgarh… Agriculture and animal husbandry developed with a corresponding decrease in the need to hunt and gather food… But we who live today are apologetic for our ancient past. We may acknowledge Moen jo Daro, Harappa or other sites of the Sindhu Valley civilisation, but begrudgingly and with reluctance. Reluctant, because this great civilisation is pre-Islamic, while we (or our rulers since independence) wished to ingrain in ourselves an Islamic identity by inventing a history that began with the Arab conquest of Sindh. Officially we therefore attempt to wish away our early history.

Modern Egyptians do not shy from their past, nor too the Iranians. Only we, the Muslims of the subcontinent do. And when we do, we only give away our converts’ inferiority complex.”

Mehergarh continues to inspire Pakistanis: Mehrgarh is also, a Pakistan-based human rights and democracy center that works on women’s rights and youth empowerment, with Dr. Fouzia Saeed.

Description of the Bhagnari cattle: This is a very large breed of Zebu cattle which is so huge, that it may be the BIGGEST breed of Bos indicus known, larger than even the the Ongole, the Andhrite breed, which is the current hot favourite of Indian Desi bull enthusiasts. (But the Ongole may still be only the second largest Zebu breed of the Indian subcontinent, after the Bhagnari.) Truly, this breed is the most marvellous example of Zebu: huge size, huge hump and an attractive bovine gait.

The hump of the mature bull is higher even to a turbaned, tall man, and matches the size of the hump displayed in the seals of Mohenjo Daro / Harappa, the bull figurine at Mehergarh and the Nausharo painted jar. The Bhagnari is well evolved to face fodder scarcity caused by harsh hot arid conditions. It has a natural ability to resist and survive scorching heat. Besides self-recognition by Afghanistan and Pakistan States, the webpage of the Oklahoma University describes the Baloch Zebu breed, the Bhagnari; thus the Bhagnari has international recognition

Thus the breed is extremely ancient, very beautiful and also well evolved to local conditions and now deserves a heritage tag just like the ruins and treasures of Mehrgarh.

Bhagnari cow: The benevolent Bhagnari Gaumata and Vatsa: which Hindu wouldn’t admire this picture?

Bhagnari Gaumata and Vatsa

Bhagnari bull:Note the massive hump. The bull is destined to be slaughtered for Qurbani. Which Hindu would like that prospect?

Image courtesies:



Indeed, both – the overall body size, and the massive hump size, together make up the hallmark feature of Bhagnari cattle, especially Bhagnari bulls.



The typical animal is massive with a well-proportioned body and limbs and the body color is white or grey, deepening to almost black on the neck, shoulders, and hump in adult mature males, especially in winter. The head is medium sized with a short, strong neck. Ears are small and pointed. The dewlap is small while the horns are short and stumpy. It has a straight back, wide, muscular and drooping hindquarters and black tail switch.

The Bhagnari bred has some varieties. The smaller variety is the Dajal, in the the Dera Ghazi Khan division of Pakistan’s Punjab province bordering Baluchistan. The larger variety is the Sibi, from the Sibi district in Baluchistan province, Pakistan. DGZ and Sibi are on either side of Bhag, Lehri.

The Sibi Bhagnari can often be coloured with small brown spots and the bulls are massively humped. Image source:

Sibi Bhagnari with brown patches

Image courtesies:



Body color is white or grey, deepening to almost black on the neck, shoulders, and hump in adult mature males, especially in winter. The head is medium sized with a short, strong neck. Ears are small and pointed. The dewlap is small while the horns are short and stumpy. It has a straight back, wide, muscular and drooping hindquarters and black tail switch.

The Bhagnari bred has some varieties. The smaller variety is the Dajal, in the the Dera Ghazi Khan division of Pakistan’s Punjab province bordering Baluchistan. The larger variety is the Sibi, from the Sibi district in Baluchistan province, Pakistan. DGZ and Sibi are on either side of Bhag, Lehri.

The Sibi Mela: The Sibi Bhagnadi cattle are displayed in the Sibi Mela, an annual event in Baluchistan’s Sibi district, with local importance. The Sibi Mela is a cultural festival that has been regularly organized over the past centuries. Basically a livestock trade venue, the festival is considered as an extension of Mehrgarh the Civilization. As per tradition, a large number of livestock breeders gather every spring at Sibi town for sale/purchase, competition and display of various breeds of camels, cattle and goats. The Sibi Mela has a great significance for the people of this region in Balochistan. The Sibi community’s socio-economics is so associated with the festival that the Sibis plan marriages, settle debts etc. around the date set for the Mela every year.

Bhagnari cattle genocide! The Baluchistan region got Islamised slowly, starting about 1200 years or so before the present. After Islamisation, the society there has used the Bhagnari bull for shows, as well as for beef and ritual slaughter, with the majestic bulls of this breed fetching a huge price in the Eid ul Adha market in cities of Pakistan, when wealthy Muslims buy larger animals than goats, for Qurbani. Muslims there decorate this bull before selling the animal, but eventually slaughter the animal, with such videos of bull Qurbani all over youtube, which break the heart of a Hindu who can’t watch this happening. The purest breed-conforming Bhagnadi bulls get reared only to be slaughtered for Qurbani… purebred bulls aren’t employed for any agricultural use; only the breed-non-conforming specimens are used for ploughing.

Bhagnari bulls for Qurbani. Image courtesies:



Endangered Bhagnari: allowing beef is no guarantee of protection of cattle breeds! Since the only purpose of a bull is to be slaughtered invoking Allah, Isaac and Abraham, bulls are sold as soon as they reach a stage of young adulthood, as Muslims avoid choosing older (and therefore possibly sicker) animals for Qurbani: thay want the fighting fit individuals, whose qurbani they relish and upload videos of which onto YouTube. Besides, many bulls may also be castrated for being fattened. Therefore, such young bulls get no chance to breed and pass on genes.

So how many of the so-called Bhagnadi specimens, whose massive bulls are so valued for sale in the Eid-ul-Adha markets in Sindh for bull Qurbani, are actually pure Bhagnadi nowadays? Only 10%! 90% of the specimens are now considered not conforming to the breed standard (they are ‘non-descript’) and do not fetch value for sale in the beef-consuming region. This is an alarming loss of heritage germ plasm…

As the breed got endangered anyway, due to loss of ‘purity’ of germ plasm, it prompted the Pak administration to conserve the breed;even the Baloch agricultural  website, quoted at the start of the article, talked of conservation of the breed for Baloch heritage. The Pakistani husbandry department reports, it had to take up provision of Artificial Insemination of pure Bhagnari bull semen for prevention of dilution of breed germ plasm, as Bhagnari cattle were the symbol of prosperity for the inhabitants of the region

We thus see that while beef-supporters argue that non-vegetarianism can help preserve purebreds, at least in case of Zebu cattle breeds like the Bhagnadi, beef-eating is no guarantee of the protection of a breed from going non-descript; they remain endangered; and losing the Bhagnadi would be a shame, given its magnificence and its ancientness.

After all, there are eminent reasons a breed of cattle is preserved: neither beef-non-vegetarianism by Christians or Muslims, nor Jallikatu or beef-abstinence or vegetarianism of Hindus  can help. Only a scientific, sensible management and breeding program (GauSamVardhan!), coupled with bull employment in agriculture can help; breeds die when humans give up agriculture for other jobs.


While India cannot save all the world’s Zebu cattle and cannot preserve specimens of all Zebu breeds of the world (like from Africa or elsewhere), the cattle of Baluchistan, especially Bhagnadi cattle, are indeed a special case. As the Baloch freedom struggle and CPEC politics deepen, preservation of such an iconic Sindhu-Saraswati-Civilisation memory – namely the Bhagnari breed – would fade to the background. As India befriends the Baloch and supports the Baloch freedom struggle, and as wealthy businessmen from Gujarat and Rajasthan take up GauSamVardhan, the import of Bhagnari cattle specimens for breeding can be undertaken either privately by funding by Hindu (including Jain) businessmen or corporate house CSR, or by good offices of the Modi  government.

For all cases of scientifically taken-up GauSamVardhan (like the Bhagnadi import into India from Baluchistan), the GauSamVardhak team requires a minimum critical figure as founders of the new line. We need lots of purebred individuals with mutually unrelated germ plasm to avoid inbreeding. It would do us Hindus good to import at least 16 pure Bhagnadi uncastrated young bulls approaching maturity and 24 pure Bhagnadi heifers (near-mature cows), all bulls and cows being unrelated to each other, and conserving the animals with proper breeding methods, care and due record keeping, to evolve the Indian line of the Bhagnadi race outside Baluchistan. (The drain of our Gir germ plasm started with just 100 Gir cattle sent by the King of Bhavnagar to Brazil.) Each bull may be crossed with a cow at least twice, to get equal chance of getting a male and a female calf from the same parents. The arid conditions of Baluchistan are matched by Western Rajasthan and Kutchh, where the breeding can take place; the bulls must be employed in farming field work.


Mason’s world dictionary lists the Sistani breed as a breed of Afghanistan. The breed of Chakhansurri / Shakhansurri zebu cattle of what is now Afghanistan and Pakistan, is called the Sistani / Seistani in Iran because Sistan is found in Western Baloch areas of Iran sovereign territory.


Trifurcated Baluchistan: Divided into Iranian, Pakistani and Afghanistani territories:

The Baloch are facing trouble as Sunnis in Shiite Iran, as Baloch in Punjabi-dominated Pakistan and in Afghanistan as being non-Pakhtun.

Afghan Baloch: Quoting a website: “…there are about two million of us (Afghan Baloch) in Afghanistan, but only those living in the southern provinces of Nimroz and Helmand speak Balochi….Historically a nomadic group, the Baloch people have endured years of brutal repression for their moderate vision of Islam. Mullah Omar, the leader of the Taliban, even issued a fatwa, an Islamic edict, against the people of Nimroz, calling for the ethnic cleansing of the Baloch and Shia population.”

Iranian Baloch: The people inside Iranian Baluchistan are also struggling for Baloch freedom. Writes Saad Khan, an independent writer on international geo-strategics: “…The ultimate victims are the poor Balochis, who face a double whammy: they are unable to practice their faith and live normal lives in Iranian Balochistan; they are free to practice their faith in Pakistan but face equal injustices and economic and racial discrimination. Covert military offensives are carried out in both of these regions on the pretext of countering liberation movements. There is, of course, an air of resistance in Baloch areas as they are fed up with decades of discrimination and brutal police and army offensives….”

Hindu Zabol:

Sistan or Seistan was Hindu Zabol (Jabal) and was the first portion of Hindu Bharatvarsha to be Islamised. Kabul was Kapisa. Zabul was Islamised only after the Islamisation of Iran, and remains annexed to Iran.

We have to glean the history of the Iranian and Afghan Baloch from various sourrces. They worshipped the Sun or Zun, and had magnificent mandirs dedicated to sun-worship, just as the southwest of Afghanistan (Iran’s border) has Herat, the Sun temple. Hence the Muslim Arabs also called the Zabulis, the Zunbils, or Sun-Worshippers.

To quote a website: THE ZUNBILS – THE MOST EFFECTIVE GATEKEEPERS OF INDIA “Possibly, there is no other kingdom in the annals of history other than the Hindu Shahis of Zabul who stopped an imperial juggernaut in it’s tracks and survived, but is thrown into the dustbin of history.”

Zabul and Kabul were ruled by Brahmin Shahis. Quotes the website Jambuudwipa: “…The 12th Century historian of Kashmir kalhana eloquently describes the ruling house of Kabul as below, ‘Where is the Shahi dynasty with its ministers, its kings & its great grandeur…The very name of the splendour of the Shahi kings has vanished. What is not seen in a dream, what even our imagination cannot conceive, that dynasty accomplished with ease.’ Kalhana’s Rajatarangini…”

Writes Sita Ram Goel ji in “Heroic Hindu Resistance to Islamic Invaders”:

“…It was in AD 650 that the first Islamic army penetrated deep into Zabul by way of Seistan, which at that time was a part of India territorially as well as culturally. The struggle was grim and prolonged. The Islamic army suffered heavy losses. In the final round, the invader was defeated and driven out.

Another attack followed in AD 653. The Arab general, Abdul Rahman, was able to conquer Zabul and levy tribute from Kabul. The king of Kabul, however, proved desultory in paying regularly what the Arabs thought to be their due. Finally, another Arab general, Yazid ibn Ziyad who had been the governor of Seistan for some time, attempted retribution in AD 683. He was killed by the Hindus, and his army was put to flight with great slaughter. The Arabs lost Seistan also, and had to pay 5,00,000 dirhams to get one of their generals, Abu Ubaida, released…

…Hajjaj had to make peace according to which the Hindu king was entitled to keep his kingdom in exchange for an annual tribute. The Hindu king, however, stopped payment in the reign of Caliph Sulayman (AD 715-717). Some attempts to force him into submission were made in the reign of Caliph Al-Mansur (AD 745-775). But they met with only partial success, and we find the Hindus ruling over Kabul and Zabul in the year AD 867. The Arabs had failed once again to conquer finally another small Hindu principality, in spite of their being the mightiest power on earth. The struggle had lasted for more than two hundred years…

…The kingdom of Kabul suffered a temporary eclipse in AD 870 but not on account of the Arabs, nor as a result of a clash of arms. The Turkish adventurer, Yaqub bin Layth, who started his career as a robber in Seistan and later on founded the Saffarid dynasty of Persia, sent a message to the king of Kabul that he wanted to come and pay his homage. The king was deceived into welcoming Yaqub and a band of the latter’s armed followers in the court at Kabul. Yaqub bowed his head as if to do homage but he raised the lance and thrust it into the back of Rusal so that he died on the spot. A Turkish army then invaded the Hindu kingdoms of both Kabul and Zabul. The king of Zabul was killed in the battle, and the population was converted to Islam by force. That was a permanent loss to India. But the succeeding Hindu king of Kabul who had meanwhile transferred his capital to Udbhandapur on the Indus, recovered Kabul after the Saffarid dynasty declined…”

The Sistani Zebu cattle:

The tract of the Sistani thus happens to be all the trifurcated Baloch areas: occupied by Iran and Pakistan and the Baloch-majority areas of Afghanistan. Thus, the Sistani is identifiable with Irani Baloch identity in particular and overall Baluch identity in general. Sistani cattle are true zebus with a compact formation to their bodies. And yes, the bulls have a massive hump.

Sistani or Seistani or Shankhansurri or Chakhansurri

Left: Sistani cow

Right: Sistani Bull:

The hump of the Sistani: A Sistani bull can pull weight with a yoke attached to his hump, which is massive. In this link, the bull is shown pulling 200 litres of water from a deep well per attempt, in a traditional setting somewhere inside Iran’s remote countryside.

Image courtesy:

Surely, the Iranis are wise enough to not allow the useful hump to be bred away by crossbreeding with humpless Eurasian taurine cattle.

So, is the Sistani breed being conserved in all the three parts of Baluchistan? Well, may be, Iran (Iranian Baluchistan) is the only relatively stable region to think of pursuing the idea. Besides giving proof of the Sistani being Bos indicus, this website on Iranian dairy breeds describes the Sistani to be disease-resistant, adapted to and selected for a ‘rustic environment’ and giving a useful type of casein in milk, proving the beneficial effects of consumption of A2 milk from cows of only Bos indicus origin, in contrast with the harmful protein in A1 milk of the Bos taurus cow.

Sistani cattle can also be black coloured, and these pictures resemble those of cattle we see across India

The tendency to have backwardly curled horns (supposed to be characteristic of Kapil bulls and Kapila cows, who are supposed to be non-descript) is noted in some pure breeds too, namely the Sistani breed too.

Backward horns: Sistani Kapil?

Image courtesies:



The word ‘Dashtiari’ is a dialect of Persian, a breed of Zebu cattle and the name of a river, the ‘Bahu Kalat / Bahu / Dashtiari / Silup’ River, a river in the ‘Sistan va Baluchistan’ province in Iran.

This is a photograph of a bull of the ‘Dashtiari’ breed; it resembles the red coloured breeds of contiguous areas, namely the Red Sindhi and the Red Sahiwal. It is massively humped and fully Zebu. This cow is lighter red.


In subsequent blogs, we shall continue our journey into Afghanistan and Pak-occupied Punjab and Sindh, to discover more Goumata breeds, and the rivers, histories we all have forgotten. After that, we shall see what questions the presence of Bos indicus in Iran poses to the Aryan theory.

Meanwhile, we wholeheartedly support the Baloch freedom struggle.

Hindus must fully support the Baloch freedom struggle and oppose Pakistan


One comment to Forgotten Bos indicus from Baluchistan and Iran

  • Bryan Westra  says:

    Interesting article. I found myself horrified by one of the photos of the young child inside the carcass of a dead calf. I feel it is important to end such practices.

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